Sales agents perform a wide range of work - from accepting orders to its delivery.
Thus, the main characteristics of this approach are purposefulness and, as a consequence, subjectivity.
The next stage in building a new methodology is to determine the factors on which the creditworthiness of borrowers depends.
Creditworthiness as "capacity" is defined, on the one hand, by the "need" to repay a loan, and on the other - the "ability" of the borrower to do so. That is, the correspondence of "necessity" and "opportunity" will mean "ability". Specifying this, we note that "need" is reflected in the terms of the loan (loan amount, interest rate, loan period, etc.), and "opportunity" - the ability of the borrower to generate cash flows sufficient to repay debt under these loan terms.
In view of the above considerations, it is appropriate to dwell on two main factors that determine the creditworthiness of the borrower:
credit terms; the borrower's ability to generate cash flows.
Creditworthiness factors are graphically represented in Fig. one
Assessment of the borrower's creditworthiness can be carried out by two methods:
the method of coefficients is based on the selection of optimal for a particular borrower coefficients and their normative values and their analysis in the dynamics and comparison with the average value in the industry or with values in similar enterprises; the rating method is based on the assignment of a certain rating (score) for the value of a particular indicator in each group of coefficients (at the choice of the bank) in accordance with the scale set by the bank. Then display the overall score (score), which determines the degree of creditworthiness of a particular borrower.
Each bank uses its own methods of assessing the creditworthiness of borrowers, but all these methods are subject to a certain system of financial indicators that characterize the client: the obligation to pay for previously obtained loans, current financial condition, ability to mobilize funds from various sources.
Criteria for assessing the financial condition of the borrower are set by the bank based on the specifics of its lending activities. For such assessment the bank uses objective and subjective indicators of the client's activity.
The objective indicators of the client's activity include:
volume of sold products; profit; cash flows; losses; composition and dynamics of receivables and payables; profitability of the enterprise; product profitability; balance sheet liquidity ratios; cost of production, etc.
Subjective factors include:
efficiency of enterprise management; macroeconomic situation; the state of development of the borrower's industry; the borrower's market position and its dependence on cyclical and structural changes in the economy and industry; availability of government orders and government support; history of loan repayment in the past; form of ownership, etc.
Commercial banks in Western countries use in practice complex systems of various financial indicators to assess the creditworthiness of their customers. These systems differ from each other in the number of indicators used as part of the overall rating of the borrower, as well as different methods of characterization and prioritization. Thus, in the practice of US banks, the "five C rule" is applied.
Recently, European, American, Russian and some Ukrainian banks have implemented the methods of customer credit analysis - CAMPARI and PARTS systems, which are based on a consistent review of the most important factors in the loan application and financial documents that characterize the client's risk. granting a loan.
These methods of assessing the creditworthiness of the borrower have become quite popular due to their successful combination of analysis of personal and business qualities of the client.
Nevertheless, the classic approach to assessing the creditworthiness of the borrower is the analysis of the balance sheet of the enterprise. However, accounting is not the only source of information for credit analysis. Most financial indicators give only a general idea of the client's condition. Therefore, additionally consider the reputation of the borrower, his credit history and more.
It is worth noting that in Ukraine, the NBU also develops recommendations for commercial banks to determine the financial condition and creditworthiness of borrowers. According to the "Regulations on the procedure for forming and using the reserve for compensation of possible losses on credit operations of banks" from 06.07. 2000 No. 279 criteria for assessing the financial condition of the borrower are set by each bank independently of its internal regulations for active operations (credit)
and methods of assessing the financial condition of the borrower, taking into account the requirements of this Regulation, which should determine a thorough, technically sound criteria for economic evaluation of financial performance of borrowers based on analysis of their balance sheets and reports on financial results in dynamics, etc. The method of assessing the financial condition of the borrower, which was developed by the bank is an integral part of the bank's internal lending regulations.
The following system of obligatory coefficients is developed and used in practice for the analysis of a financial condition of borrowers by regulations of Sberbank:
total liquidity ratio; absolute (term) liquidity ratio; the ratio of borrowed and own funds; coefficient of maneuverability of own funds.
In KV JSPPB "Aval" when determining the creditworthiness of borrowers calculate the following economic indicators:
current liquidity ratio; absolute liquidity ratio; coefficient of financial independence; coefficient of maneuverability; profitability of sales; return on assets; return on capital; depreciation of fixed assets; the share of overdue receivables; the share of overdue accounts payable.
A specialized system of coefficients has been developed in KV JSPPB "Aval", which is proposed to dwell on in more detail, as an example of assessing the creditworthiness of borrowers, because it, in the opinion of the second, is more complete and complete than others.
We will consider the specified technique on an example of crediting of the borrower of Open Company "Macro."
First, it is proposed to consider the collected information about the borrower whose we will analyze. Thus, on October 18, 1998, the enterprise "Macro" was established, which was registered by the Kolomyia City Executive Committee # 6531, USREOU code 29321300.
The company is engaged in industrial fish production, wholesale and retail trade in food. LLC "Macro" has prospects for development, is important for the bank's branch in various respects: the prospect of income from lending, cash and settlement services, significant turnover, and current account balances. The client used a loan in the amount of UAH 300,000 in the Ukrinbank branch, which he will pay for the dayrepayment in advance in KV JSPPB "Aval".
On April 16, 2002, a revolving credit line was opened to replenish working capital in the amount of UAH 500,000. for a period of 12 months. Turnover of credit funds for May - 45.92 days, for June - 28.99 days, for July - 32.49 days.
The main activity of the company is the production of fish products, processing and canning of fish, production of fish dishes. The company has been operating since 1996, located within the city on a land plot of 0.49 hectares, provided with convenient access roads. Production area of 1580 square meters. m., production capacity is 480 tons of fish products and 24 million pieces of physical cans per year. Production capacity consists of a cannery, with a design capacity of 1430 thousand units. conventional cans per month (2 million units - physical cans), processing plant - 1 turn with a capacity of 240 tons per year, - fish processing shop - 2 turns with a capacity of 240 tons per year. In 2001, 1,461.8 thousand units were manufactured. canned food of 10 types.
The company is constantly increasing the range of products. In 2002, it is planned to produce 13 types of canned food in the amount of 12,527,000 units. These are sea and river fish in tomato sauce, in oil, in oriental sauce. The products have the appropriate certificates. The company's products have been repeatedly awarded diplomas and certificates for high quality. Work is constantly underway to improve the quality, product range, expand the network of suppliers and diversify the range of raw materials, taking into account consumer demand. The organization of sales is made taking into account the specific wishes of customers. Sales agents perform a wide range of work - from accepting orders to its delivery. There is a flexible pricing policy that allows you to expand the range of consumers.
On August 15, 2002, the company's management applied to the bank with a request to https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ increase the revolving credit line from UAH 500,000. up to UAH 1,000 thousand to replenish working capital to ensure the production process: the purchase of raw materials, packaging, payment for services related to fish processing and the issuance of a new loan in the amount of 1,500 thousand UAH. The term of crediting under the credit line is within the limits of the operating credit line till April 16, 2003, on the loan it is planned to repay monthly in equal parts.
The head of the enterprise provided the credit department of the bank branch with a package of necessary documents for making a decision on the possibility of lending.
It is worth noting that before the analysis of the borrower's financial condition in the credit department of KV JSPPB "Aval" is the analysis and grouping of data of the borrower's balance sheet and statement of financial performance for several previous dates. It is also mandatory to modify the client's reporting to determine the share by the last reporting date. The modified report on financial results and sources of their use allows Macro to conclude that sales for the first quarter of this year reached the level of the first half of last year.
A positive financial result was achieved as of the last reporting date. It also analyzes the dynamics of net sales, operating profit, pre-tax profit and net profit or loss. The analysis showed that quarterly production volumes varied depending on the timing of commercial fishing, in general, there is an increase in sales.