M .: Flint: Moscow Psychological and Social Institute, 1998.
The hierarchical structure of the pedagogical orientation of the teacher (and hence the motivation of professional self-determination) can be represented as follows:
focus on the child (and other people), associated with care, interest, promoting the development of his personality and the maximum self-actualization of his personality; self-orientation associated with the need for self-improvement and self-realization in the field of pedagogical work; focus on the subject side of the teaching profession (the content of the subject). [6, p. 38 - 41].
Conclusions. Thus, professional orientation is a professionally significant feature that occupies a central place in the structure of the teacher's personality and determines his individual and typological identity. In a broader sense (in terms of the integral characteristics of work) - is a system of emotional and value relations, which sets the hierarchical structure of the dominant motives of the teacher's personality, which motivate the teacher to assert itself in teaching and communication.
Motivation is a motivation that causes the activity of the body and determines its direction. Professional self-determination is a choice from the arsenal of professions that best suits individual human traits. Given the motivation to enter the university, the whole set of modern students can be clearly divided into three groups:
students who are focused on education as a profession. The most important thing for them is the interest in future work, the desire to realize themselves in it. They have a tendency to continue their studies in graduate school; students are business oriented. For them, education is a tool (or starting point) to start their own business, trade, and so on. They understand that in time this area will also need education, but their attitude to their profession is less interested than in the first group; students, which, on the one hand, can be called "those who are undecided" on the other hand, they are oppressed by problems of a personal, domestic nature. The most important for them are domestic, personal, family problems. These are the ones "who floats downstream" who cannot decide on their own path, for whom education and profession are not of such interest as in the first groups. It is possible that their self-determination will take place later, but now the purposeful choice of their professional future is not typical for them.
Motivation of professional self-determination of a teacher has its own features and can be represented as follows:
focus on the child (and other people), associated with care, interest, promoting the development of his personality and maximum self-actualization of his personality; self-orientation associated with the need for self-improvement and self-realization in the field of pedagogical work; focus on the subject side of the teaching profession (the content of the subject). [with. 38-41].
In particular, IV Fastovets, based on professional motives (with a focus on the content of the subject, communication and improvement), as well as the teacher's reflection on the motivation of the process and result of their work, identifies the following types of pedagogical orientation:
business orientation - motives for disclosing the content of the subject; humanistic orientation - motives of communication; individualistic orientation - motives for improvement.
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Psychological features of the educational process in students with profound visual impairments. Abstract
Training of visually impaired people has its own specifics
Since there are not enough textbooks printed in embossed font, the theoretical classes focus on the explanation of the material by the teacher, its discussion and fixation by students. Those who have a Braille system make notes in notebooks, others record material on a dictaphone. Phantoms, three-dimensional models, convex tablets are used in practical classes, which allows blind students "see" hands.
For independent work, blind students use specialized libraries for the blind, where they can get textbooks and other necessary books printed in Braille or recorded on tape for listening to a tape recorder. In the absence of such sources of information, blind students for several decades independently hired readers to organize the audio recording. On the basis of the audio recordings received at lectures or independently recorded audio notes are made in Braille, which help in specific preparation for seminars, tests and exams.
Recently, computer technology has begun to play a leading role in the independent work of blind students. Personal computers are equipped with programs for reading text files through speech synthesis, which functionally replaces the tape recorder and audio recordings and opens up fundamentally new possibilities for information processing. The source of this information is the technology of scanning flat-printed texts with the subsequent recognition of the obtained images, obtaining electronic texts from the Internet or from a collection of text files offered on the market on CDs. Computer technology significantly modifies the process of information transfer. If previously a blind student had to print texts or dictate them to the driver, now he has the opportunity in similar conditions to other students to prepare an electronic version of the text and print it on a printer.
The specificity of receiving processing and transmission of information gives rise to the peculiarities of mental processes that blind students have in their studies. Complete or partial lack of vision leads to a compensatory effect primarily on the auditory analyzer, as well as fingers as organs of touch. This compensatory action makes blind students more attentive both when listening to lectures or audio recordings, and when reading special books. It is safe to say that a blind person perceives and remembers much more information by ear than his sighted colleague.
The following principle works: the poorer the sources of information, the more effective its assimilation. Colleagues of blind students are often surprised by their ability to memorize the information obtained in lectures, but they do not think about what achieves this effect.
However, it should be borne in mind that the use of compensatory capabilities of the body means to obtain the desired result through the use of greater physiological and mental reserves, namely: processing of information received by ear costs much more bioenergy costs than similar processing of visual information. In other words, replacing the source of information, which was obtained from 80% to 90% of its volume increases the load on the auditory and tactile analyzers in 4 - 10 times.
Thus, the educational process of blind students has significant differences not only in the form of technical support and practical implementation, but also in the features of mental processes that occur both on the conscious and subconscious levels of these persons. Moreover, the compensatory nature of these processes and the associated additional burdens raise questions about their adequacy to the requirements of health, safety of mental work and the formation of specific forms of scientific organization and work.
In particular, the fact that excessive use of the hearing aid in the assimilation of complex auditory information requires a significant increase in the speed of psychophysiological reactions and biochemical processes underlying them is underestimated. In this way, a high level of excitation of the cerebral cortex and the corresponding efficiency of the process of assimilation of information is achieved. However, you have to pay for such reactivity, and after one or two hours of intensive listening there is an involuntary process of inhibition of mental reactions, the suspension of which requires additional motivational stimuli.
For most blind students, a significant motivation is to achieve greater academic success compared to sighted colleagues. This, of course, helps them to maintain a high level of, but does not cancel the objective laws of nature, according to which fatigue gradually accumulates and the processes of inhibition begin to dominate the processes of excitation.
An important role in the unloading of the auditory analyzer is played by the use of Braille as a form of information transmission through special books or technical means. Today, such hardware is a peripheral device that in Braille codes on special tactile displays duplicate information from a computer monitor.
Effective use of tactile displays, for its part, requires a significant development of finger sensitivity, which is mostly available at an early age, and is extremely problematic for people who have become blind adults. However, the sensitivity of the fingers is not the main problem with the use of tactile displays: the extremely high cost of these devices is much more complicated. In most cases, blind students do not study in separate teams but in higher education institutions of general access, ie together with sighted students.